M to MANKIND (Past)

M3 VARIANT  Type of fuel used for the Recovery 8 rocket (CCC).

M37  Planetary system located beyond the Sigmus Gap catalogued by Tryst (5K).


M, GILBERT  Absent-minded scientist from Vasilip who designed the Kandy Man.  After the Seventh Doctor helped a revolution overthrow Helen A's regime, he and Joseph C fled Terra Alpha in a space shuttle originally intended for Helen A (7L).

MAAGA  Commander of the Drahvin team stranded on the doomed planet of Galaxy Four.  She was the only true Drahvin, the other women being programmed, test-tube products.  Maaga tried to enlist the First Doctor's help in her confrontation with the Rills, but he refused.  She and her crew perished in the planet's destruction (T).

MACE, RICHARD  Out of work actor from 17th Century.  He helped the Fifth Doctor, Tegan, Adric and Nyssa defeat the Terileptils (5X).

MACHONITE  Substance used by the Time Lords in their courtroom.  According to Glitz, it was worth quite a few grotzis (7C).
MACINTOSH, ALEX  Television reporter covering the peace conference at Sir Reginald Styles' house (KKK).
MACKAY, WILLY  Former Captain of the Annabelle and supporter of the Scots' rebellion.  He was betrayed to the English by Trask, who then stole his ship (FF).

MACKAY  Explorer and Prof. Travers' friend.  He was killed by the Great Intelligence's robot Yeti (NN).

MACKENZIE  Scotland Yard Inspector who had come to Gabriel Chase to investigate the disappearance of Sir George and Lady Margaret Pritchard, the owners of the house.  He had been captured and preserved for two years by Josiah Samuel Smith.  The Seventh Doctor reanimated him, but he was later killed by Light, who devolved him back into primeval soup (7Q).


MACRA  Crab-like aliens who had succeeded in secretly dominating a human space colony and forcing them to extract and refine the gas which was necesssary to their survival.  They were exposed and defeated by the Second Doctor (JJ).

MACROMAT FIELD INTEGRATOR  Component of Zanak's transmat engines.  It burned out while Zanak and the TARDIS both tried to rematerialize on Calufrax at the same time.  The Captain was ready to crush Earth to obtain the mineral PJX 18 (quartz) to replace it (5B).

MADDOX  Sea Base Four's junior crewmember.  He replaced Michaels as synch operator, but felt inadequate.  He was brainwashed by Nilson and Solow and forced to kill Karina.  He was eventually killed by Nilson (6L).

MADDY  One of the younger Rezzies of Paradise Towers and Tilda's and Tabby's neighbour.  She joined forces with the Seventh Doctor, the Kangs, and the Caretakers to destroy the Great Architect (7E).


MADILLON CLUSTER  Space sector where the Rutans fought the Sontarans (6W).
MADISON, ANGELA  Phil Madison's wife (K).
MADISON, LARRY  He helped the First Doctor fight the Daleks during their 2164 AD Invasion of Earth.  His brother Phil had been turned into a Roboman and worked at the Bedfordshire site.  Both he and Phil were killed by the Daleks (K).

MADISON, PHIL  The Daleks turned him into a Roboman to work in their Bedfordshire site during their 2164 AD Invasion of Earth.  Both he and his brother Larry were killed by the Daleks (K).

MADNESS  The TARDIS created a state of temporary insanity in the First Doctor's companions in order to alert them to the fact that the Fast Return Switch was jammed (C).  Xoanon was a schizophrenic computer (4Q).  Varos had once been a colony for the criminally insane (6V).  The Doctor met a great number of mad scientists such as Prof. Zaroff (GG), Dr. Solon (4K), Dask (4R), Magnus Greel (4S), Kroagnon (7E), etc.  Also see EVIL.

MADRA  Name of the Zygon who impersonated Harry Sullivan.  He died while attacking Sarah (4F).

MADRIK  Karfelon rebel (6Y).
MADRONITE 1-5  One of the minerals extracted from Calufrax by Zanak.  It was used by Mr. Fibuli to power the Psychic Interference Transmitter that the Captain used to stop the Mentiads (5B).

MAGELLANIC MINING COMPANY  One of Earth's multi-planetary corporations.  Garron posed as its agent when he tried to sell Ribos to the Graff Vynda-K (5A).

MAGGOTS  The Third Doctor fought deadly swarms of giant maggots and green slime, also known as the "Green Death", in Llanfairfach.  They were killed by a fungus found by Prof. Clifford Jones (TTT).

MAGIC  According to Clarke's Law, sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic (and vice-versa).  Therefore, scientic explanations usually accounted for all the seemingly supernatural phenomenon.  Supernatural beings turned out to be superior entities preying on less evolved beings.
 Among those entities who were thought to be Gods or Demons at one time or another in Earth's history, and which often became the center of a cult of worshippers, were: the alien Light (7Q), the Daemons (JJJ), the Mondasians (DD),  Sutekh, Horus and the Osirians (4G), Scaroth of the Jagaroth (5H), Kronos (OOO), Cessair of Diplos (posing as the celtic goddess Cailleach) and her Stones of Blood (5C), the ancient Exxilon (XXX), the embodiment of evil known as Fenric (7M), the Mandragora Helix (who took over the Brotherhood of Demnos) (4M), the Malus (6M), the Terileptil android dubbed "Grim Reaper" (5X),  Magnus Greel (posing as the Chinese god Weng-Chiang) (4S).  The First Doctor himself was mistaken for Zeus during the Trojan War (U), while Barbara Wright was thought to be Yetaxa's reincarnation by the Aztecs (F).  Morgaine's parallel Earth appeared to be ruled by magic, although Morgaine's talents were presumably the result of parapsychological abilities (7N).  The goddess Hecate was a pagan concept worshipped by a cult of witches in Moreton Harwood (K9).
 On alien worlds, the Doctor came in contact with a number of religions where primitive people worshipped a powerful, seemingly supernatural entity.  These included: the Exxilon City (XXX), Xoanon (4Q), the Oracle (4Y), Kroll (5E), the Mara (5Y, 6D) and the Gods of Ragnarok (7J).  Also see MIND POWERS, MONSTERS, RELIGION.

MAGISTER (MR.)  Alias used by the Master in Devil's End (JJJ).
MAGLA  8,000-mile-long space amoeba, often mistaken for a planet (5J).
MAGLEM CONVERTER  A Maglem Mark-7 converter made of siligtone was the device which converted ultra-violet light into black light, which was then transmitted down to the UK Habitat where it was used to power Drathro.  The Maglem converter was also the sacred totem of Haldron, one of the gods of the Tribe of the Free.  It was destroyed by Dibber, unwittingly triggering a black light explosion that could have endangered the entire universe, if it had not been stopped by the Sixth Doctor.  After Drathro's destruction, Dibber suggested he and Glitz could make money from selling the converter's siligtone (7A).

MAGMA BEAST  Monster who lived in the caves of Androzani Minor.  It had the body of an armadillo and powerful, fanged jaws.  It was killed during the mud burst (6R).

MAGNA CARTA  Charter of English liberties granted by King John in 1215 AD under threat of Civil War.  The Master used Kamelion in an attempt to turn the Barons against King John to prevent its signing (6J).
MAGNADON  Metal creature from Skaro which the Thals used to recharge their hand lights (B).
MAGNOTRON  Devise used by the Time Lords' corrupt High Council to move Earth out of the Solar System during the Ravolox Stratagem (7A-7C).

MAGRIK  Vorus's chief assistant, and engineer of the Skystriker missile.  He fought the Cybermen to free Voga (4D).

MAGS   She was the protege of Captain Cook, who had found her on  Vulpana, and one of the contestants in the talent contest organized by the Psychic Circus to entertain the Gods of Ragnarok.  Mags turned out to be a werewolf.  The Seventh Doctor helped her rebel against the Captain, whom she killed.  Afterwards, she stayed with Kingpin to launch a new circus (7J).

MAHARIS  Subject Guardian and willing Monoid collaborator.  He was killed by crossfire in the battle between Monoids One and Four on Refusis (X).
MAIDEN'S POINT  Promontony near the Nortumberland village where Fenric's flask was buried (7N).
MAILER, HARRY  Prisoner at Stangmoor Prison who staged an unsuccessful riot.  The Master then helped him take over the Prison, and later used him to hijack the Thunderbolt Missile.  He was eventually shot by the Brigadier as he was about to kill the Third Doctor (FFF).

MAIMUNA  The daughter of Haroun Ed Diin taken by El Akir for his harem.  She helped Barbara escape from El Akir's clutches (P).

MAITLAND  Captain of the Earth ship in orbit around the Sense-Sphere.  He and his crew, Carol Richmond and John, were held captive by the Sensorites.  Thanks to the First Doctor's efforts, he was eventually allowed to return to Earth, after having promised to protect the secret of the Sensorites' existence (G).

MAKRIF  Maylin of Karfel who was murdered by the Borad.  He was Katz's father.  He was friends with the Third Doctor, and helped negotiate the original peace treaty with Bandril (in an unrecorded story) (6Y).

MALDAK  Young Varosian guard.  He was moved by the Governor's appeal to his decency, and rescued him and Peri from death by the Cell Disintegrator (6V).

MALIK  Old Tartar in Tegana's employ (D).

MALKON  Young Sarn boy who was destined to become Sarn's leader because he had been chosen by Logar.  In reality, he was Turlough's brother, and had crashlanded on Sarn.  Malkon bore the Misos Triangle.  He was wounded by an Elder and cured by the Numismaton flame.  He returned to Trion with Turlough (6Q).

MALPHA  Member of the Dalek Alliance in their Masterplan against Earth.  He was eventually betrayed by Mavic Chen and the Daleks, but returned home and joined the human forces (T/A, V).

MALSAN  Aridian who met the First Doctor and helped him escape from the Daleks (R).

MALUS, THE  Evil alien entity who arrived in Little Hodcombe in 1643 AD.  It used psychic projections to feed on the villagers' fears during the English Civil War, then became dormant.  It was rediscovered in the local church by Tegan's grandfather, Andrew Verney.  The Malus was awakened by Sir Gorge Hutchinson's unbalanced mind.  Under their combined influences, a series of deadly war games reenacting the Civil War was launched.  The Fifth Doctor was able to cut it off from the villagers' emotions.  After Sir George's death, the Malus destroyed itself and the church (6M).  Later, the Fifth Doctor theorized that the Malus was a Hakol psychic probe.

MANDRAGORA HELIX  Spiral-shaped energy life form, gifted with collective intelligence, living in uncharted areas of the space-time vortex, with a mysterious relation with the stars.  It travelled to 15th Century Italy in the TARDIS, and took over Hieronymous and the cult of the Brothers of Demnos.  It wanted to enslave mankind to prevent them from reaching the stars and becoming a threat.  Its plan was to prevent the Renaissance and thus perpetuate the Dark Ages.  It was eventually short-circuited and banished by the Fourth Doctor, but the stars were favorable to its return by the end of the 20th Century (4M).

MANDREL  Leader of the rebellion against the Company on Pluto.  He had attacked a supervisor and been sent to a correction centre.  He escaped and lived in the Undercity with Goudry, Veet and the Others.  He helped -- reluctantly, at first -- the Fourth Doctor and Leela overthrow the Company (4W).

MANDRELS  Savage monsters from the planet Eden.  Tryst discovered that the deadly drug vraxoin could be manufactured from the Mandrels' essence after they had been destroyed by heat.  He used his CET machine to capture and transport the Mandrels, but they escaped after the Empress and the Hecate crashed above the planet Azure when both ships simultaneously emerged from hyperspace.  The Fourth Doctor lured the Mandels back to the Eden projection inside the CET (5K).

MANIPULATOR  Silurian device used by Icthar to launch Sea Base Four's missiles without a human synch operator (6L).




 Formation of the Earth.  The oldest rocks so far studied by science are over 3.5 billion years old.  It has therefore been theorized that Earth is between 4 and 6 billion years old. Since the maximum time required for the formation of all the elements of the Earth's crust has been determined by the latest scientific evidence to be about 5.5 billion years, this is the date that we shall adopt here.
 The first four-fifths of the estimated five billion years of Earth's history is recorded in rocks which contain no fossils.  Adequate fossil records exist only for the past 600 million years, probably due to the fact that the earliest lifeforms were soft-bodied, with the hard body parts necessary for preservation not developing until the Cambrian period.
 This has conveniently enabled science to separate Earth's span of existence into two major time divisions: the Cryptozoic (meaning "hidden life") or Pre-Cambrian Age, and the Phanerozoic (meaning "obvious life") or Cambrian Age.


 C. 3.5 billion B.C., the crippled spaceship of Scaroth the Jagaroth exploded while taking off.  The radiation caused by the ship's explosion triggered a mysterious biological mutation in the amniotic primordial "soup", thereby creating life on Earth.  The explosion also split the alien into 12 segments scattered across different time periods between then and 1980 A.D.  Scaroth attempted to return in time to prevent the explosion, but his efforts were ultimately thwarted by the Fourth Doctor, Romana and Duggan (5H).
 [ Note:  The events described in this story were incorrectly reported as having happened 400 million years ago.  Yet, the earliest known forms of life on Earth are single-celled forms resembling modern bacteria (procaryotic cells), and these date from 3.5 billion years ago, hence our decision to recast the date of 5H.  Also, there was no breathable atmosphere on Earth at that time.  Being Time Lords, the Doctor and Romana -- and presumably Scaroth too -- could survive such an absence, but the fact that Duggan did so would indicate that he, at least, would have had to have been encased in some form of portable force field.]
 The procaryotic cells were anaerobic (i.e.: they lived without oxygen).  During the next two billion years, these cells evolved through amalgamation to produce more advanced cells, the eucaryotic cells.  Around 1.5 billion years B.C., these cells developed the more complex modes of living and advanced types of reproduction that eventually led to the appearance of multicellular plants and animals.
 Finally, c. 700 million years B.C., the first invertebrates appeared on Earth, thereby implying the presence of at least moderate levels of free atmospheric oxygen and a predictable supply of food plants.

 (570 TO 225 MILLION YEARS B.C.):

 The Paleozoic is divided into six sub-divisions:

  (570 TO 500 MILLION YEARS B.C.):
  During the next 130 million years, the basic body plans of modern animals developed during  a remarkable burst of evolutionary change.
  Beginning 570 million years ago, skeletons developed independently in a number of animal lineages.  One wormlike lineage that pursued a swimming mode of life evolved a stiff dorsal cord, and eventually an articulated internal skeleton which supported the body to improve swimming efficiency.  Thus, fish (chordates) arose from early invertebrates.
  A characteristic animal of the Cambrian Period is the trilobite, a primitive form of crustacean, which became extinct during the Permian Period.  Snails and mollusks also appeared during this Period.  Flora was entirely confined to seaweed and lichens.
  (500 TO 430 MILLION YEARS B.C.):
  The first primitive fish and the earliest corals appeared during the Ordovician Period.  The largest animal of the Period was a cephalopod mollusk that had a shell of approximately three meters in length.
  (430 TO 395 MILLION YEARS B.C.):
  Vascular (i.e.: land-based) plants began to appear during the Silurian Period.  Arthropods (some evolving into insects) and other invertebrate groups followed them.  The first recorded air-breathing animal was the scorpion.
  [ Note:  The saurian lifeforms mistakenly known as "Silurians" and "Sea Devils" did not exist during this period, but made their appearance much later, during the Mesozoic.]
  (395 TO 345 MILLION YEARS B.C.):
  Finally, land vertebrates, amphibians at first, evolved from freshwater fish.  In the sea, sharks, lungfish, and other armored fish thrived.  Lower lifeforms of this Period included the starfish and the sponge.  The first woody plants, such as ferns, appeared on land.
  (345 TO 280 MILLION YEARS B.C.):
  The progress of land vertebrates made them increasingly mobile.  In the sea, the cestraciontes  (a group of sharks) were the dominant creatures.  On land, the dominant lifeforms were the stegocephalia, lizard-like amphibians which evolved into the first reptiles.  Other land animals included spiders and more than 800 species of cockroaches.
  (280 TO 225 MILLION YEARS B.C.):
  This period, the last of the Paleozoic, saw the disappearance of many forms of marine animals and the rapid spread of evolution on land, especially of reptiles.  A comparatively small group of reptiles which evolved during the Permian were the theriodontia, from which mammals would later spring.

 The Mesozoic is divided into three sub-divisions:
  (225 TO 195 MILLION YEARS B.C.):
  The Triassic heralded the Age of Reptiles, the dominant lifeforms of this Period.  The dinosaurs --    aquatic ichtyosaurs and ing pterosaurs included -- ruled the Earth, first as comparatively slender animals which ran on their feet and balanced their bodies with their tails.  However, the first mammals also made their appearance: small, nocturnal creatures with reptilian looks.
  The Earth's land mass which, until then, had been welded into a single area, known as Pangea, split into a northern landmass, known as Laurasia, and a southern one, called Gondwana.
  (195 TO 136 MILLION YEARS B.C.):
  The evolution of the dinosaurs continued, producing the brontosaurus, the tyrannosaurus, the   trachodon, the stegosaurus, etc.  The first true bird, the archeopteryx, evolved from other reptiles.  The mammals remained smaller than modern-day dogs.  New insect lifeforms also appeared: the moth, the beetle, the grasshopper and the termite.
  Geologically, Gondwana was ripped apart to make room for the Atlantic Ocean.
  It was during the Jurassic that the  petrified hand of the Kastrian Eldrad landed on Earth and became a fossil.  It was dug up in 1977 A.D. and used Sarah Jane Smith to facilitate its regeneration.  Eldrad's plans to return to Kastria and rule the planet were ultimately foiled by the Fourth Doctor (4N).
  Also, one may suppose that the various reptiles scooped up by Prof. Whitaker's time device, and brought back to 1975 A.D. to help Sir Charles Grover's "Operation Golden Age" were taken from the  Jurassic.  Sir Charles's plan was thwarted by the Third Doctor, Sarah Jane Smith and UNIT (WWW).
  Lastly, according to the TARDIS' evidence, it was 140 million years ago, towards the end of the Jurassic, that the Fifth Doctor, Tegan and Nyssa fought the Master (disguised as Kalid) for control of the powerful alien Xeraphin, and the return of a Concorde airplane hijacked from 1983 A.D. through a time corridor (6C). [ Note:  In spite of having occurred 140 million years, this incident was incorrectly recorded as having taken place during the Pleistocene, which began 138 million years later.  We have now restored it to the correct time period.]
  (136 TO 65 MILLION YEARS B.C.):
  Reptiles remained the dominant lifeform on Earth until the end of the Mesozoic: the triceratops as well as snakes and lizards, appeared.  Amongst the mammals, the first marsupials arose.  In the plant kingdom, the first flowering plants evolved, leading to the beech, the holly, the laurel, the maple, the oak, the walnut, etc.
  It was during the Cretaceous that the (misnamed) "Silurians" (BBB) and their aquatic brethren, the "Sea Devils" (LLL), ruled the Earth.
  [ Note:  It is interesting to remark that mammals must already have evolved into some kind of early primate, since on several occasions, members of both reptilian races indicated that they were familiar with this type of creatures during the Period.  It is also possible that the Silurians used advanced genetic technology to accelerate the evolution of primitive mammals to create those primates, which they more or less regarded as pets.   However, fossil evidence so far uncovered, has not confirmed the existence of any Cretaceous primates.]
  The Silurians and the Sea Devils were eventually driven underground by some, as yet unknown, cosmic event.  Members of the Silurian species encountered by the Third Doctor blamed it on a sudden change in the Van Allen radiation belt (BBB).  Some theories include other cosmic phenomenon such as movements of the Moon, or of Earth's twin planet, Mondas.  Lastly, it is a possibility that the Silurians somehow became aware of the forthcoming crash of a space liner from the future (6B).
  In any event, the Silurians and the Sea Devils disappeared from the surface of the Earth, but survived underground, in suspended animation.  They were to return in 1971 (BBB), 1973 (LLL) and 2084 A.D. (6L), when they met defeat at the hands of the Third and Fifth Doctors.
  65 million years ago, a space freighter from the 24th Century crashed on Earth.  The Cybermen had meant the ship to crash on the planet to destroy the galactic alliance against them, but Adric successfully diverted it into the past.  The ship crashed with the young Alzarian on board (6B).
  The cloud of dust caused by the explosion brought about the end of the Mesozoic, and the extinction of the dinosaurs.

 The Cenozoic is divided into the following periods:
  (65 TO 54 MILLION YEARS B.C.):
  With the dinosaurs extinct, seven groups of mammals developed in Northern Asia, then migrated to other parts of the world.  All were four-footed and five-fingered, walking on the soles of their feet, and none exceeded the size of a modern-day bear.  They had slim heads, narrow muzzles and small brain cases.
  Geologically, North America's land-ties to Europe were finally broken, but its ties to South America were forged.
  (54 TO 38 MILLION YEARS B.C.):
  The first monkeys made their appearance, as well as the horse, the camel, the rhinoceros, the eagle and the vulture.
  (38 TO 26 MILLION YEARS B.C.):
  Most of the archaic mammals disappeared to be replaced by their modern versions.  The first     anthropoid apes, as well as dogs and cats, began to evolve.
  (26 TO 12 MILLION YEARS B.C.):
  The first appearance of grasses helped boost the development of mammals, encouraging grazing animals, and ultimately carnivores, who preyed on herbivores.  In Europe and Asia the Dryopithecus -- a gorilla-like ape, became quite common.
  (12 TO 2.5 MILLION YEARS B.C.):
  The Pliocene was the culmination of the age of mammals, setting the stage for the appearance of man, with early hominids such as the Ramapithecus (c. 7-12 million years B.C.) and the Australopithecus (c. 4 million years B.C.).
  It was near the beginning of this period that the Fendahl Skull, which originated on the Fifth Planet of the Solar System, landed on Earth and began to influence man's evolution.  It would eventually be destroyed, thanks to the efforts of the Fourth Doctor and Leela, in 1978 A.D. (4X).
  [ Note:  The five periods listed above are also known as the "Tertiary".  The "Quaternary", which followed and continues today, heralded the Age of Man.]
  (2.5 MILLION YEARS TO 650,000 B.C.):
  The first actual humans emerged during the latter part of the Pleistocene.  The A. Africanus (a sub-species of the Australopithecus) evolved into the first Homo Erectus between 2 and 1.5 million years B.C.
  The Pleistocene also saw the emergence of a variety of other animals such as the mammoth, the    saber-toothed tiger and the mastodon, all of which became extinct before the end of the Pleistocene.    However, the badger, the fox, the lynx, the otter, the skunk, the puma and the bear, which also ap-     peared during this Period, did not.
  Towards the end of the period, men began using crude stone tools, ushering in the Paleolithic period.
  (650,000 TO 8000 B.C.):
  Also known as the Stone Age, the Paleolithic began when stone tools were first used by Homo Erectus.  The story of human evolution now encompassed most of the World: Asia (Peking and Java Man), as well as Europe and Africa.
  Sometime around 400,000 B.C., Homo Erectus began to slowly evolve into the early form of Homo   Sapiens.
  Towards 150,000 B.C., the first Neanderthals appeared.
  C. 100,000 B.C., the First Doctor and his Companions, Susan, Ian Chesterton and Barbara Wright, helped a tribe of Neanderthal cavemen rediscover the secret of fire (A).
  Around the same time, the alien being known as "Light" visited the Earth, intending to catalog its evolution.  He rescued Nimrod, a Neanderthal.  Trapped in his spaceship, Light was eventually brought to England in 1883 A.D. by explorer Redvers Fenn-Cooper, only to meet defeat at the hands of the Seventh Doctor and Ace (7Q).
  Between 50,000 B.C. and 30,000 B.C., the Neanderthals became extinct and were replaced by early modern humans, thanks to the intervention of the awesome aliens known as the Daemons (JJJ).
  There is still considerable disagreement as to whether the Neanderthals were a step in the       evolutionary process leading to modern humans, or were simply an offshoot branch that became extinct,  while modern humans evolved in parallel.
  In any event, as a result of their intervention, the Daemons made a deep and everlasting impression on the native cavemen and contributed to shaping their mythology.  From then on, Man's collective unconscious would remember with dread the powerful image of great, horned creatures.
  The Third Doctor even surmised that some Daemons revisited Earth at irregular intervals to check on the results of their evolutionary experiments, but in the absence of irrefutable evidence of further Daemon interventions, such a hypothesis is difficult to prove or disprove.
  What is known, however, is that the Daemons left one of their own, Azal, behind, in a miniaturized, suspended animation state.  Azal was "summoned" back to life by the Master in 1972 A.D., but was eventually defeated by Jo Grant's willingness to sacrifice her own life to save that of the Third Doctor (JJJ).
  [ Note:  Certainly, the Fendahl (4X) would ave had no objection to the Daemons' tampering with Man's evolution, and may even have pushed things along in the same direction.]
  Around 20,000 B.C., two alien, vegetable Krynoid pods landed in the Antarctic and buried themselves into the permafrost.  They were eventually dug up in 1977 A.D. and, aided by the mad millionaire Harrison Chase, threatened to destroy the Earth.  They were eventually defeated by the Fourth Doctor and Sarah Jane Smith (4L).
  It was during that later part of the Paleolithic (20,000 to 8000 B.C.) that Earth was first visited by two alien races with whom Mankind would have numerous encounters in the future:
  * First, the Mondasians, from Earth's twin planet, visited our world before finally deciding to leave the Solar System with their entire planet. They left behind legends of Space Gods and Giants Who Walked The Earth.  They would return in 1986 A.D. in the guise of the dreaded Cybermen, and be defeated by the First Doctor, Ben Jackson and Polly  (DD).
  * Second, it is likely that it was also during the time of the last of the prehistoric Ice Ages, that a Martian ship visited Earth and became buried and frozen in a glacier.  Its crew, led by Varga, was to be rediscovered only during the year 3000 A.D.  Brought back to life, the so-called "Ice Warriors" threatened Earth, but were ultimately defeated by the Second Doctor, Jamie and Victoria Waterfield (OO).  It is very possible that, soon afterwards, the Martians decided to evacuate their dying homeworld, to relocate elsewhere in the galaxy.
  (8000 TO 6000 B.C.):
  During the Mesolithic, Paleolithic tools were adapted to the greater availability of food, leading to the development of agriculture.  By 6000  B.C., agricultural villages began to develop, ushering in the Neolithic Age.
  (6000 TO 2000 B.C.):
  During this period, mankind began to settle into permanent enclaves.
  It was sometime during the Neolithic -- between 6000 and 3000 B.C., the estimated date of the  beginning of the 1st Dynasty -- that the powerful alien Osirians visited Ancient Egypt, creating a new pantheon of gods in their image.
  Led by Horus, the Osirians fought the evil Sutekh, and left him imprisoned inside a hidden pyramid.  However, he was accidentally released in 1911 A.D. by Egyptologist Marcus Scarman and would have destroyed the world, if not for the Fourth Doctor and Sarah Jane Smith (4G).
  Another of the so-called Egyptian "gods" was, in reality, a splinter of Scaroth of the Jagaroth.  Unlike the Osirians, Scaroth fostered the development of sciences, trying to help Mankind acquire the technological knowledge that would someday enable him to build a time machine to return to 3.5 billion years B.C. (5H).
  C. 3000 B.C., the alien villainess Cessair of Diplos, eing the Megara justice machines, landed on Earth.  It was the time of the erection of the great Neolithic stone monuments and, with the help of her monolith-shaped servants, the Ogri, she succeeded in impersonating a Druidic goddess, the Cailleach.  She would be unmasked by the Fourth Doctor and Romana in 1979 A.D. (5C).
  C. 2800 B.C., the alien Urbankans visited Earth for the first time, and kidnapped an Australian Aborigene named Kurkutji.  They would return  (5W).
  [ Note:  The dating of the Urbankan visits to Earth poses a problem.  The Fifth Doctor, who met their leader, Monarch, towards the end of the 20th century, guessed that the Urbankans' visits had taken place every four thousand years, based on the time he supposed it took the aliens to travel between their world and Earth.  According to this method, the approximate dates of the Urbankans' visits would therefore be: 10,000 B.C., 6000 B.C., 2000 B.C., Year 0, and 2000 A.D. (half-a-trip).  However, the nature of the native Earth people taken by the aliens (Kurkutji, an Australian Aborigene; Lin Futu, a Chinese mandarin from the so-called "Futu" dynasty; Villagra, a Mayan princess and Bigon, a Greek philosopher) is in contradiction with the above dates.
  [We know that the fifth Urbankan visit took place c. 2000 A.D., that the Mayan civilization ruled Central America between 250 A.D. and 900 A.D. and that Greek philosophers flourished around 400 B.C.  There is no trace of a "Futu" dynasty in China, however the Shang Dynasty (18th to 12th century B.C.) would be consistent with Lin Futu, based on archeological discoveries made at the burial site of Fu Hao, a royal member of that dynasty.  Lastly, Australian Aborigenes are estimated to have first populated Australia between  40,000 B.C. and 25,000 B.C., thus Kurkutji could have been taken at any time prior to the Lin Futu visit.
  [Therefore, we estimate that it is more likely that the time it took for the Urbankans to travel between their planet and Earth was not four thousand but twelve hundred years, and their visits occurred in 2800 B.C., 1600 B.C., 400 B.C., 800 A.D. and 2000 A.D.]
  C. 2500 B.C., at the time of the construction of one of the Great Pyramids of Egypt, the First Doctor, Steven Taylor and Sara Kingdom faced both the Daleks and the Meddling Monk (V).
  The Neolithic ended with the discovery of bronze.  Thus, the Bronze Age marked the end of      Prehistory.

 C. 1600 B.C., the Urbankans returned a second time and kidnapped a Chinese nobleman of the Shang Dynasty, named Lin Futu (5W).  (See previous note.)
 C. 1500 B.C., the volcano on the island of Thera, in the Aegean Sea, erupted in a violent explosion, one of the most stupendous of all times.  According to ancient Egyptian records later rewritten by Plato, this was the site of a urishing civilization, known as Atlantis, which perished in the cataclysm.  What is now known, is that the eruption was triggered when the Master released -- in spite of the Third Doctor's intervention -- the time-devouring entity known as Kronos, which the Atlanteans had trapped in a crystal (OOO).
 [ Note:  The inhabitants of a lonely Atlantean outpost located south of the Azores in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean were cut off from civilization and forced to eke out a miserable underground existence for nearly thirty-five centuries.  They were "discovered" by Prof. Zaroff in 1968 A.D., and used in his insane plans to destroy the world.  Fortunately, Zaroff was ultimately defeated by the Second Doctor, Jamie, Ben Jackson and Polly (GG).]
 C. 1200 B.C., the First Doctor became involved in the near-legendary Trojan War.  Mistaken for Zeus, the Time Lord gave the crafty Greek warrior Odysseus the idea for the Trojan Horse.  After Troy's fall, the Doctor's companion, Vicki, left with Trojan warrior Troilus to become Cressida, while a young Trojan girl, Katarina, helped Steven Taylor get back to the TARDIS (U).
 The Trojan War itself may have been triggered by the Rani, who had come to Earth to steal the brain fluid which promotes sleep, thereby increasing the potential for aggression in human beings.  She would eventually be defeated by the Sixth Doctor and Peri in 1825 A.D. (6X).
 1000 B.C. marked the beginning of the Iron Age and the decline of Egypt and Babylonia, which were replaced by a period of Assyrian expansion.
 It was around 1000 B.C., during the Chavin period, that the alien Exxilons visited Ancient Peru, leaving behind more legends of Space Gods (XXX).
 From 500 to 323 B.C., date of Alexander the Great's death, Greek civilization dominated the Mediterranean Basin.
 C. 400 B.C., the Urbankans returned a third time, and kidnapped a Greek philosopher named Bigon (5W).  (See previous note.)
 This period was the time of the rise of the Roman Republic.  With the defeat of Carthage in 207 B.C., Rome emerged as a first-rate power.
 C. 50 B.C., around the time of Julius Caesar, a Roman legion was kidnapped by the alien Warlords, using time technology stolen from the Time Lords.  These Romans went on to take part in the War Games, until these were brought to a stop by the Second Doctor's intervention (ZZ).
 More warfare might may have been fostered by the Rani, who had again appeared on Earth to steal more brain fluid (6X).
 The Roman Empire was in full bloom c. 30 B.C. with Augustus.  The birth of Christ, which occurred during the reign of Emperor Tiberius, marks the beginning of Modern History ("Anno Domini").

 In 64 A.D., the First Doctor and his Companions, Ian Chesterton, Barbara Wright and Vicki, visited Imperial Rome.  The Doctor inspired mad Emperor Nero to set fire to the city (M).
 C. 240 A.D., in Ancient China, in an unrecorded adventure, the Doctor defeated the ageless, immortal evil known as Fenric, and imprisoned it in a flask.  Fenric began to shape events through time and space in order to create human pawns (dubbed "wolves") who would, one day, secure his release (7M).  [Note:   Another version of the same events placed the Doctor's first battle with Fenric in Arabia around the 7th century.]
 395 A.D. is one of the dates commonly accepted as marking the Fall of the Roman Empire.  In the East, it was replaced by the Byzantine Empire, which would rule until 717 A.D.  In the West, various Germanic successor states,  such as the Franks, who conquered Gaul c. 500 A.D., would become "chritianized".

 C. 500 A.D., on an alternate timeline, in England, a future incarnation of the Doctor became known as Merlin, and buried the body of King Arthur inside a spaceship, which eventually landed beneath the lake of Cadbury on the regular Earth timeline.  On that alternate Earth, the sorceress Morgaine went on to become the ruler of her world.  She eventually came to our Earth where she fought the Seventh Doctor for the possession of Excalibur (7N).
 C. 800 A.D., the Urbankans appeared for the fourth time, and kidnapped a Mayan princess named Villagra. (See previous note.)  They would return one final time towards the end of the 20th century, and be defeated by the Fifth Doctor (5W).
 C. 1000 A.D., the flask containing the evil Fenric was stolen by a crew of marauding Vikings, and was brought to the shores of Northumbria.  Fenric would finally escape his prison and confront the Seventh Doctor in 1943 A.D. (7M).
 In, or just prior to, 1066 A.D., the First Doctor, Steven Taylor and Vicki battled the Renegade Time Lord known as the Meddling Monk near Hastings.  The Monk's plan was to ensure King Harold's victory, and thus prevent the Norman Conquest of England (S).
 Around that time, a medieval knight was snatched through time by the Master who, using the power of the Kronos Crystal, used it in his attempts to stop the Third Doctor, Jo Grant and Mike Yates in 1973 A.D. (OOO).
 C. 1190 A.D., a Sontaran Commander named Linx, whose spaceship was crippled in a battle with the Rutan, made an uneasy alliance with Irongron, a medieval warlord.  Using rudimentary time technology, Linx kidnapped scientists from  1975 A.D., but was ultimately defeated by the Third Doctor, Sarah Jane Smith and a Wessex archer named Hal (UUU).
 In 1192 A.D., in Palestine, the First Doctor and his Companions, Ian Chesterton, Barbara Wright and Vicki saved the life of King Richard the Lionheart during the Third Crusade, and defeated the evil El Akir (P).
 In 1215 A.D., the Fifth Doctor, Tegan and Turlough stopped the Master from using the shape-changing android Kamelion to impersonate King John and prevent the signing of the Magna Carta (6J).
 In 1289 A.D., the First Doctor, Susan, Ian Chesterton and Barbara Wright met Marco Polo in Tibet.  They followed the Venetian adventurer to the court of Kublai Khan in China, where they prevented Tegana from assassinating the Great Khan (D).
 From 1337 to 1475 A.D., the Hundred Years' War raged between France and England.

 C. 1430 A.D., the First Doctor, Susan, Ian Chesterton and Barbara Wright visited the Aztecs.  Mistaken for the reincarnation of Yetaxa, Barbara tried to stop their practice of human sacrifices, but ultimately failed (F).
 C. 1478 A.D., the Fourth Doctor and Sarah Jane Smith defeated the Mandragora Helix in the Dukedom of San Marino, Italy, and thus helped save the Renaissance (4M).
 C. 1505 A.D., the Fourth Doctor met one of Scaroth's twelve splinters, Captain Tancredi, in Leonardo Da Vinci's house.  The Jagaroth had commissioned the painter to paint more than one Mona Lisa, in order to enable his future self in 1980 A.D. to raise money to finance his time travel experiments (5H).
 1543 A.D. marked the death of Copernicus and the beginning of the Western scientific revolution.  By the end of the first quarter of the 17th century, new scientific evidence by Galileo (1564-1642) had laid the basis for a new cosmology.
 In 1572 A.D., the First Doctor and Steven Taylor were almost caught in the bloody events leading to the infamous Massacre of Saint Bartholomew's Day in Paris (W).
 C. 1635 A.D., in an unrecorded adventure, the Doctor spent some time in Tibet, where he met and befriended the future High Lama of Det-Sen, Padmasambhava.  The Second Doctor returned in 1935 A.D. to confront the evil Great Intelligence (NN).
 In November 1638 A.D., in Windsor, in an unrecorded adventure, the Doctor fought Lady Peinforte, who had found the deadly living metal validium which had crashed on Earth, and had shaped it into a silver statue which she had dubbed "Nemesis".  The Doctor eventually sent the Silver Nemesis into space, in an orbit that would bring it close to Earth every twenty-five years.  Soon afterwards, Lady Peinforte hired a mathematician to calculate the exact time of the statue's return to Earth.  Then, she used the power of the Silver Nemesis' arrow, which she had managed to retain, to travel through time to 1988 A.D. (7K).
 C. 1643 A.D., an ordinary human named Will Chandler was drawn through time to 1984 A.D. by the evil Malus (6M).
 Around the same time, a squadron of roundheads was snatched through time by the Master who, using the power of the Kronos Crystal, used it in his attempts to stop the Third Doctor, Jo Grant and Mike Yates in 1973 A.D. (OOO).
 C. 1650 A.D., the First Doctor, with the help of Ben Jackson and Polly, fought Captain Pike's pirates and a ring of smugglers on the Cornish Coast (CC).
 In 1663 A.D., the Silver Nemesis came close to Earth, possibly heralding the Great Plague of 1665 A.D. (7K).
 In 1666 A.D., the Fifth Doctor, Adric, Tegan and Nyssa of Traken, as well as out-of-work actor Richard Mace, fought the alien Terileptils, who plotted to use the black plague to depopulate the Earth, and take over the planet.  In the resulting confrontation, the Doctor accidentally started the Great Fire of London (5X).
 C. 1676 A.D., the crippled spaceship of the alien Zygons landed in Loch Ness.  The Zygons' monstrous pet, the Skarasen, would become known as the Loch Ness Monster.  The Zygons reemerged in 1976 A.D. with the intention of conquering Earth, but were defeated by the Fourth Doctor and UNIT (4F).  [ Note:  The Loch was, at the time, already inhabited by the Borad, an alien from Planet Karfel banished by the Sixth Doctor through a time tunnel known as Timelash (6Y).  The Borad was himself a monstrous, quasi-reptilian creature, and one can surmise that either the Zygons, or the Skarasen, probably killed him.  Unless the Skarasen was the Borad, mutated by Zygon science.]
 1687 A.D. saw the publication of Isaac Newton's "Principia", a breakthrough in the advancement of physics.

 In 1688 and 1713 A.D., the Silver Nemesis again came close to Earth, perhaps influencing the warlike policies of France's Sun King towards the Austro-Prussian Empire (7K).
 In 1738 A.D., the Silver Nemesis approached Earth once more, possibly heralding the first great Irish famine (7K).
 In 1746 A.D., the Second Doctor, Ben Jackson and Polly met young Jamie McCrimmon soon after the Battle of Culloden.  The Time Lord and the young Scot then put an end to the evil solicitor Gray's slave traffic (FF).
 There is also evidence that Red Coat soldiers were kidnapped by the alien Warlords, using time technology stolen from the Time Lords.  These men went on to take part in the War Games, until these were brought to a stop by the Second Doctor's intervention (ZZ).
 In 1763 A.D., the Silver Nemesis again came near Earth, possibly heralding a war between Turkey and Russia (7K).
 In 1788 A.D., the Silver Nemesis approached Earth, possibly heralding the French Revolution.  Also, the statue's bow, which had become the Queen of England's property and was kept at Windsor Castle, was mysteriously stolen (7K).
 In 1794 A.D., the First Doctor, Susan, Ian Chesterton and Barbara Wright were caught up in the events of the French Revolution, a period which the Doctor visited before in various unrecorded adventures.  The time travelers helped British master-spy James Stirling escape the guillotine (H).

 In 1804 A.D., Napoleon proclaimed himself Emperor of France.
 In 1813 A.D., the Silver Nemesis came close to Earth, maybe exacerbating the warlike policies of Napoleon's First Empire (7K).
 During Napoleon's ill-fated Russian campaign, French and Russian troops were kidnapped by the alien Warlords, using time technology stolen from the Time Lords.  These men went on to take part in the War Games, until these were brought to a stop by the Second Doctor's intervention (ZZ).
 C. 1825 A.D., the Sixth Doctor and Peri fought both the Rani and the Master.  The former was engaged on another attempt to collect brain id.  The latter was trying to stop the advent of the Industrial Revolution (6X).
 In 1838 A.D., the Silver Nemesis approached Earth, possibly heralding the Chinese-British Opium Wars (7K).
 In 1859 A.D., Charles Darwin's "On The Origin of Species" was published, introducing the theory of Evolution.
 C. 1862 A.D., an American Confederate Army was kidnapped by the Warlords, using time technology stolen from the Time Lords.  These soldiers went on to take part in the War Games, until these were brought to a stop by the Second Doctor's intervention (ZZ).
 The American Civil War was possibly fostered by either the Silver Nemesis (7K), which came near Earth in 1863 A.D., or the presence of the Rani, who had come to Earth to steal brain fluid (6X), or both.  [Note:  Although this is historically posterior to the events taking place in 1825 A.D., in her own timeline, the Rani's visit to 1862 A.D. actually occurred before her encounter with the Sixth Doctor.)
 In 1866 A.D., the Second Doctor and Jamie met Victoria Waterfield and, with her father's help, fought an attempt made by Daleks from the future to infect Mankind with the Dalek Factor (LL).
 C. 1870 A.D., French and Prussian troops fighting in the Franco-Prussian War, as well as Mexican Rebels (including a man named Villar) fighting Emperor Maximilian, were kidnapped by the alien Warlords, using time technology stolen from the Time Lords.  These soldiers went on to take part in the War Games, until these were brought to a stop by the Second Doctor's intervention (ZZ).
 In 1872 A.D., the First Doctor, Ian Chesterton, Barbara Wright and Vicki, fleeing the Daleks, arrived on the Mary-Celeste.  Soon afterwards, the aliens from Skaro caused the ship's crew to jump overboard (R).
 C. 1880 A.D., the infamous criminal from the 51st Century, Magnus Greel, and his nefarious Peking Homunculus, arrived in China in a time cabinet.  His body crippled by the Zigma Experiment, Greel was taken in by a Chinese peasant named Li H'Sen Chang, who mistook him for the god Weng-Chiang.  The cabinet, however, was confiscated by the Emperor's men and given to the British (4S).
 In 1881 A.D., the First Doctor, Steven Taylor and Dodo Chaplet almost took part in the famous gunfight at the O.K. Corral in Tombstone, Arizona (Z).
 In 1883 A.D., the Seventh Doctor and Ace arrived in a mysterious house in Perivale, where strange events led to the reawakening of the powerful alien known as "Light".  Confronted by the inevitability of evolution, Light chose to commit suicide.  The woman known as Control, explorer Redvers Fenn-Cooper and Nimrod the Neanderthal left Earth in Light's spaceship (7Q).
 In an unrecorded adventure taking place later in Ace's life, she left the Doctor to settle permanently in France in this time period, where it is rumoured she eventually married (7K).
 In 1888 A.D., the Silver Nemesis again approached Earth, possibly heralding the Boer War, the Boxer Rising and numerous other wars which occurred towards the end of the 19th century (7K).
 C. 1890 A.D., with Li H'Sen Chang's help, Magnus Greel and his Peking Homunculus (known as Mr. Sin), moved to London in an effort to recover Greel's time cabinet, now in the hands of Prof. Litefoot.  Greel, who by then needed to absorb the lifeforce of young women to survive, was eventually defeated by the combined efforts of the Fourth Doctor, Leela, Prof. Litefoot and Henry Gordon Jago (4S).
 C. 1891 A.D., the Sixth Doctor met the young H.G. Wells, who helped him and Peri defeat the Borad on the planet Karfel (6Y).

 C. 1900 A.D., troops fighting in both the Boxer Rising in China and the Boer War in South Africa were kidnapped by the alien Warlords, using time technology stolen from the Time Lords.  These men went on to take part in the War Games, until these were brought to a stop by the Second Doctor's intervention (ZZ).
 C. 1904 A.D., the Fourth Doctor and Leela defeated a shape-changing Rutan on the lonely island of Fang Rock (4V).
 In 1905 A.D., physicist Albert Einstein (at one time, bri  kidnapped by the Rani (7D), but restored to his proper place in time and space, his memory erased) enunciated his Theory of Relativity.
 In 1911 A.D., the Fourth Doctor and Sarah Jane Smith fought the merciless Osirian Sutekh the Destroyer, whose hidden pyramid had been excavated by Egyptologist Marcus Scarman.  Sutekh forced the Doctor to take Scarman to Mars to destroy the Eye of Horus, but eventually fell victim to the Doctor's superior cunning (4G).  By then, Mars was a dead world, having already been evacuated by the Ice Warriors.
 In 1913 A.D., the Silver Nemesis circled near Earth, heralding the approach of World War I (7K).
 C. 1917 A.D., British and German soldiers were kidnapped by the Warlords using time technology stolen from the Time Lords.  These men went on to take part in the War Games, until these were brought to a stop by the Second Doctor's intervention (ZZ).
 In 1925 A.D., the Fifth Doctor, Adric, Tegan and Nyssa of Traken solved the mystery of the Black Orchid at Cranleigh Halt, unmasking the pitiful figure of George Cranleigh, a British explorer horribly disfigured by South American Indians (6A).
 In 1926 A.D., the S.S. Bernice, a steam ship traveling on the Indian Ocean, was snatched out of time and space to become part of a Scope, a peepshow owned by a galactic showman from the future named Vorg, and outlawed by the Time Lords.  The Bernice was later restored to its proper location thanks to the efforts of the Third Doctor and Jo Grant (PPP).
 C. 1928 A.D., while on the run from the Daleks, the First Doctor and his Companions briefly visited Hollywood (V).
 C. 1934 A.D., the Fourth Doctor and Romana briefly visited Brighton Beach, before finally going to the Leisure Hive (5N).
 In 1935 A.D., the Second Doctor, Jamie and Victoria Waterfield fought the evil Great Intelligence and its robot Yeti, which threatened the Det-Sen Monastery in Tibet.  The Doctor was unable to save his friend Padmasambhava's life, but defeated the Intelligence.  He also befriended Prof. Travers (NN).
 C. 1936 A.D., Hitler ordered the Nazis to secure "occult" artefacts of great power, such as the Ark of the Covenant, the Holy Grail -- and the Silver Nemesis' bow, which had been stolen from Windsor Castle in 1788.  The latter eventually fell into the hands of De Flores, along with a formula enabling him to calculate the time and location of the statue's eventual return to Earth (7K).
 In 1938 A.D., the Silver Nemesis approached Earth, heralding the approach of World War II (7K)
 C. 1943 A.D., in a lonely village on the coast of Northumbria, the Seventh Doctor and Ace fought Fenric, who had finally succeeded in his scheme to get released from the flask in which he had been imprisoned.  However, in spite of the help of his vampiric Haemovores, and the unwitting collaboration of his human pawns (nicknamed "Wolves"), Fenric again lost the battle (7M).
 C. 1944 A.D., a German V-1 was snatched through time by the Master who, using the power of the Kronos Crystal, used it in his attempts to stop the Third Doctor, Jo Grant and Mike Yates in 1973 A.D. (OOO).
 C. 1959 A.D., the Seventh Doctor and Mel rescued the young Chimeron queen Delta from her nemesis, Gavrok, and his evil galactic mercenaries, the Bannermen, in a Welsh holiday village (7F).  [ Note:  Both Delta and Gavrok came from the future, and were travellers in time as well as in space.]
 C. 1960 A.D., while escaping from the Daleks, the First Doctor landed in the midst of a cricket game at the Oval (V).